31. Bupropion and buspirone are both considered
The Institute for Safe Medication Practice (ISMP) has a list of "confused" drug names that upon first glance can easily be mistaken for each other. Bupropion and buspirone can easily be confused for one another because they look and sound alike. These are on the ISMP list.
32. When not in use, how should the patient store insulin?
Insulin is a temperature and light-sensitive medication. To avoid degradation, the optimal storage location is in a refrigerator.
33. Patients receiving warfarin (Coumadin) should be told to be alert for
Warfarin is an anticoagulant whose most serious adverse effects are unexplained bleeding and abnormally prolonged bleeding time.
34. Which of the following devices will give the most accurate dose of oral suspension for a child?
An oral syringe will give the most accurate dosing and will prevent over- or underdosing. The oral syringe is a safe and more reliable option than the other three options.
35. A patient is filling a prescription for a medication that is a schedule II drug. "Schedule II" means that the drug
Schedule II medications, such as morphine, are categorized as controlled substances because they have a high potential for dependence and abuse.
36. On a prescription, what information should be included after the abbreviation sig?
Sig is the Latin word for signature, which means "write on the label"; directions for taking the medication are included in this location.
37. When adult patients are prescribed tetracycline antibiotics, they should be advised to
Tetracyclines cause the skin to become photosensitive and direct sun exposure may cause rashes and severe sunburn. The patient should wear clothing protection to avoid direct exposure.
38. To make sure the technician is entering a prescription on the right person, the technician may ask the patient about any of the following to verify identity EXCEPT
Although all are required to enter a prescription, identity can be verified by confirming the patient’s name and another personal identifier such as address, date of birth, or telephone number. Allergies will not conclusively confirm the identity of a patient.
39. Which classification of drugs requires special handling considerations to protect pharmacy personnel?
Some of the antineoplastic drugs cause severe injury if they contact the skin or mucous membranes.
40. The patient arrives with a prescription for Dilacor XR. The pharmacy technician understands that "XR" means that the drug
XR, LA, XT, and SR are abbreviations that indicate that the drug has an extended duration of action.
41. A 6% cream needs to be compounded with a powdered drug and hydrophilic cream. How many grams of the powdered drug are needed to make 90 grams of cream?
Six percent can be represented as (6 g) / (100 g). The active ingredient (the drug) is always represented on the top line, whereas the total amount of the entire compound is represented on the bottom line. Determine the grams of active ingredient needed by setting up a proportion with the fractional representation of the percentage and the total number of grams needed: (6 g) / (100 g) = X / (90 g). Cross-multiply and divide to find X. X = 5.4 g.
42. Polypharmacy is a common cause of medication errors. Polypharmacy is best described as
Polypharmacy is when a patient is taking several drugs for the same indication (condition). This increases the potential for additive toxicity and is a common cause of medication errors in older adults.
43. What is the purpose of the patient profile obtained by the pharmacy tech?
An accurate patient profile is obtained to correctly identify the patient, determine any patient drug allergies, and to determine all medications the patient is taking.
44. The following are all job duties of the pharmacy technician EXCEPT:
The destruction of controlled substances is strictly regulated by the Drug Enforcement Agency and is beyond the scope of practice of the pharmacy technician.
45. Why is it necessary to obtain a listing of all concurrent medications on a patient profile?
The listing of all medications (both prescription and over the counter) and herbal products assists the pharmacist in looking for potential drug interactions.
46. A patient is prescribed high doses of an oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for arthritis pain. The patient should be advised to
High doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) irritate the gastrointestinal lining. The drugs should be taken with food to reduce the potential risk for ulcers or bleeding.
47. The overall primary goal of inventory control is to
The purpose of inventory management is to ensure that the drugs most needed by patients are readily available at a reasonable cost.
48. Which law established the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to regulate the manufacturing and dispensing of controlled substances?
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (also called the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act) established the DEA and the five schedules for classifying abused drugs.
49. As part of the patient profile, the pharmacy technician should obtain information regarding the use of herbal products because
Some herbal products interact with prescription medications to either increase or decrease their therapeutic effects.
50. Taking high doses of garlic may cause excessive bruising or bleeding due to an interaction with
Garlic is a common food ingredient as well as a dietary supplement. High doses can increase the action of anticoagulants such as warfarin, resulting in a higher risk for bleeding and bruising.
51. When handling hazardous drugs, personnel protection devices include all of the following EXCEPT
Mask, lab coats, and gloves help to prevent accidental exposure of a toxic drug to the skin or mucous membranes.
52. While obtaining a patient profile, the pharmacy technician notices that the patient has a severe disability in both hands due to rheumatoid arthritis. What accommodations may be made for this patient?
Part of the patient profile is an assessment regarding whether the patient is able to take the dispensed medication, and supplying any necessary accommodations, such as easy-open bottles.
53. Used needles should be disposed in
Needles should always be disposed in a “sharps” bin, which is typically red. A rigid plastic container marked “sharps” will also suffice.
54. The process of removing unsold, unwanted, or expired controlled substances in a safe reliable manner is called
Reverse distribution is a method of returning unneeded controlled substances for disposal. The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regulates and licenses reverse distributors.
55. Which of the following is a common side effect in patients taking corticosteroids by the inhalation route?
Inhaled corticosteroids (also called glucocorticoids) suppress the immune system and may cause an overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans in the mouth or throat.
56. Which of the following is contraindicated in patients taking an erectile dysfunction agent such as tadalafil (Cialis)?
Nitrates such as nitroglycerin are contraindicated because they can cause a serious drop in blood pressure.
57. Which of this following is true regarding the refill of controlled substances?
Federal and state guidelines regulate the refill of controlled substances. Schedule II drugs, which are considered highly addictive, may be refilled only by a new prescription from the provider. Schedule III and IV drugs are less addictive and may be refilled up to five times.
58. A serious allergic reaction to a medication that includes symptoms of swelling of the tongue, face, eyes and throat, accompanied by a rash or patchy welts is called
Angioedema is acute swelling under the skin of the face and head that occurs within minutes or several hours after drug administration. The same condition can result from people who are allergic to nuts, insect stings, and shellfish.
59. Quality assurance in pharmacy is
Quality assurance is an ongoing process to prevent future mistakes by instituting practices that are appropriate, efficient, and effective. Most QA programs focus on how to prevent future errors rather than punish those who have made errors. C is the definition of "quality," not "quality assurance."
60. Medications may be removed from the pharmacy shelves due to a drug recall initiated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Which of the following is a common reason for a drug recall?
The FDA requests drug recalls due to safety reasons: usually, the medication has been found to have unacceptable adverse effects.